Point-to-Point Communication

Among the many telecommunication services, point-to-point communication is the simplest and most straightforward. A telephone call, for example, has only one caller and one receiver, limiting interaction between two nodes or endpoints. Point-to-point communication is abbreviated as P2P (do not confuse with peer-to-peer file sharing) and Pt2Pt.

This type of connection has several other applications, not just traditional PTSN.

  • Leased line, also known as private circuit or data line, refers to a service contract between a provider and client where a symmetric or bidirectional telecommunication line is delivered for a monthly rent.
  • Microwave transmission is where digital or analogue signals are transmitted from a source to a location on a line of sight radio path. This is often employed in long-distance telephone calls, computer data, and television programmes.
  • A two-way radio serves as both a transmitter and receiver, allowing both radios to communicate. It is still categorised as point-to-point communication, however, because an operator can only talk or listen, but never both at the same time. This means one of the two persons holding the radio either has to be the sender or the receiver.
point to point

Basic Pt2Pt Data Link

The basic type of P2P communications medium exactly has two endpoints and nothing else. No data or packet formatting happens in between, which means host computers on either end have to format the data that will be transmitted or exchanged between them. Computers are connected to the communication medium through an RS-232 or interface cards, depending on the proximity.

A modem is used to connect a computer that is far from the communication medium, or when using a telecommunications provider. It is also the modem that converts analogue signals to digital data stream.

Modern Pt2Pt Link

The term P2P telecommunications was linked to fixed wireless data communications for internet in 2003. It was also related to VoIP via radio frequencies that are in the range of multi-gigahertz. The standards for P2P communications was developed by the Telecommunications Industry Association’s engineering committees.


  • Point-to-point bridging refers to a connection where an access point (Access Point 1) talks directly to another (Access Point 2).
  • Geostationary satellites provide P2P connection between two stations on Earth found in different locations. Rather than communicate directly, both stations send independent signals through an uplink to the satellite.
  • Often inadequate

Connection between two nodes is rarely adequate, but expansion is not always possible with Pt2Pt communication, which makes P2P impractical.

  • Not flexible

As interaction and communication are only limited between two endpoints, P2P lacks the flexibility that other network architectures offer, such as point-to-multipoint connection where hubs and switches can be used.

  • Simple and affordable

As it only involves two nodes, setting up a P2P network is easy and cheaper, as opposed to more complex network architectures. One connection line is basically all that is required, which is something that can’t be said for a star network or ring network.

It doesn’t involve redundancy costs or the complexity of adding several nodes just to create a network.

  • Effective

P2P connection, even an outdoor wireless setup, is considered the most effective, provided that it follows the line of sight. As long as there is nothing to interrupt the connection data transmission and exchange can flow smoothly.